正确运作业主代表大会制度必须明确下列问题


原创:金渠律师房屋法术

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业主代表大会是业主大会的一种表现形式,其基本内容都是业主根据自治原则设计出来的,其在实体和程序方面与业主大会均有一定区别。

文列举了业主大会的职责范围,同时为业主自行补充留下了空间,但补充内容必须是涉及共同共有管理的事项。即使业主不进行补充,业主大会也可以行使法定的基本权力。《中华人民共和国物权法》效力所及的范围内,所有业主大会的权力内容都是没有多少差别的。

而业主代表大会的权力来自业主的授权,业主可以把所有的权利委托给业主代表,这样业主代表大会的权力就等同于业主大会的权力。业主也可以把部分权利委托给业主代表,同时自己保留重大事项表决权,那业主代表大会的权力就小于业主大会。不同小区的业主代表大会,即便在同一城市,其权力内容也可能是不同的。根据笔者了解的情况,成立业主代表大会的小区,其议事规则里规定的业主代表大会的权力与业主大会无异。

业主大会的表决可以采用集体讨论,现场表决的方式,也可以书面征求意见的形式而不必把业主集中在一起。无论采取哪种方式,都必须有专有部分面积过半的业主且人数过半的业主参加。法律对业主代表大会的表决方式与计票方式没有明确规定,交给业主自行设计。一般而言,业主代表大会的表决应当采取现场表决的方式,因为成立业主代表大会的目的就是为了解决现场开会难的问题。并且,业主代表大会人数不多,比较好聚集。

XXThe owners' congress has no term of office, and once established, it will exist for a long time until it is declared dissolved. The owners' congress has a term of office because the representative of the owner has a term of office. The owner's elected representative is based on trust, and multiple owners in a region cannot always trust a fixed number of representatives. Retaining the right to remove representatives is the real retention of autonomy.

The law of the owner's large accounting method is very clear, and the number of votes and the special part of the area are counted. The method of counting votes of the owners' congress is designed by the owner himself. In the counting method, it can be calculated in units of unit buildings, or it can be calculated without partitioning. Calculated by the unit building unit, the total voting rights of the owner's representative selected by the unit building is the sum of the voting rights of all the owners and their proprietary parts of the unit building. In the case of a sub-divisional vote, the owner's representative rules of the conference may stipulate that the voting rights of each owner's representative are equal to the total voting rights of the unit divided by the number of representatives of the unit's owners. If there are 40 owners in a unit building and the 40 owners have a total area of 4,000 square meters, then the representative of the unit owner represents 40 owners and 4,000 square meters of exclusive area. If the unit owner selects four owners' representatives, each owner's representative represents the number of ten owners plus one thousand square meters of exclusive area.

In the case of a district-counting ticket, there may be cases where the voting rights of each representative are inconsistent, and the counting of votes is complicated. Relatively speaking, the way of not counting the entire vote is easier to operate. In the case of not counting the overall votes, the voting rights of all the owners' representatives are equal to the voting rights of all the owners. The voting results are based on the overall support rate, and the voting rights of each owner's representative in each unit are not considered separately. In the case where the district count ticket is not clearly defined, based on the basic principle of owner autonomy, the ticket shall be counted according to the non-partition.

Based on the above aspects, the correct operation of the owner's congress system requires detailed rules of procedure. Refining the rules of the owners' meeting requires careful consideration and clear definition of the following issues:

xx1.谁决定成立业主大会?业主大会的作用是什么?谁将制定选择业主代表的规则和业主大会的程序?业主大会是否与业主会议共存?如果它们共存,两者的责任又如何划分?

它是什么?删除所有者代表的程序是什么?

3.业主大会如何投票?我可以通过书面评论投票吗?业主代表如何在投票前征求业主的意见?业主大会是否按地区计算投票数?您是否计算每位业主代表的投票权?在计算业主代表的投票权时,代表的人数和代表的面积是否分别计算?